Endodontics is a branch of stomatology that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the dental pulp. Endodontic treatment of teeth usually consists of removing the dental pulp ("nerve extraction"). Before the start of the endodontic treatment it is necessary to make a x-ray of the teeth, so the dentist can see its anatomical and morphological characteristics as well as its pathological process.
Dental canals are scraped with special instrument (endodontic needles) and washed to disinfect the canals. There are two types of instruments for the treatment of canals: manual and mechanical. Mechanical dental treatment is a way of cleaning and the extension of root canals, where manual tools are used as well as mechanical tools. The canals are first extended with manual instruments and then mechanical tools are used. Mechanical instrumentation has its advantages, such as a faster and more thorough treatment of root canals which contributes to the benefit of the patient.
For the filling of the root canal today different materials are used, and we usually use gutta-percha sticks. It is important that the used material ensures a good seal and prevents the penetration of bacteria from the oral cavity through the tooth in the jawbone. In order to verify the correctness of endodontic treatment, after filling teeth another x-ray control should be done.
As soon as the root canal is properly filled and the tooth no longer shows clinical symptoms of the disease, the permanent repair of the tooth is started. Depending on the crown of the tooth, permanent repairs can involve just making the filling, or the installation of an upgrade and the production of a crown or bridge.