The loss of all teeth in patients can lead to very large defects in the everyday function of chewing, speech, appearance and complete satisfaction. Reconstruct and restore function and aesthetics in edentulous patients is one of the largest and most difficult challenges for a dentist, and unfortunately in many cases a totally ignored, devalued and neglected medical procedure. In case of the stabilization of complete dentures, especially the bottom, implants can have a huge positive role. Mobile prosthetics: The patient can independently take out of the mouth such type of dental prosthetics. Removable dentures can be complete (full) or partial.
They are made for each jaw when no natural tooth is left. They are constructed more simple than partial prosthetics, and consist of the denture base on which the teeth are fixed. The denture base is part of the prosthesis which fits with the mucous membrane, and it is made of pink acrylic that blends into the surrounding mucosa. The prosthesis must be designed to stay well on the base and does not move during chewing, and the base must be of a favorable shape with enough remaining bones. For a comfortable fit and proper function of dentures it is necessary that it stays well on the base. This means they do not move and do not fall out during speech and chewing. A well fixed prosthesis is achieved by designing its base so that it fits closely with the mucous membranes and the edges of the prosthesis which is "hung up" on certain parts of the base and thus prevent movement of the prosthesis. The bonding of the dentures is highly dependent on the shape of the base, and sometimes because of unfavorable forms of edentulous ridge it is difficult (sometimes impossible) to create a stable prosthesis. In general, a lower full prosthesis is less stable than the above because the lower denture has a smaller base, so there are fewer opportunities to capture the edentulous ridge. In such cases, it would be the best (if the anatomy of the jaw allows this procedure) to make a prosthesis on implants.
A particular problem in the preparation of complete dentures represents bone resorption. After the tooth extraction, bone which upheld it is slowly absorbed and ridge gradually is decreasing. If this condition persists, the crest can be absorbed so that it is almost impossible to make a prosthesis that will be stable during chewing. This is especially noticeable on the base of the lower dentures because of the strong absorption edentulous ridge may become completely flat. The best solution in this case is to make prosthetics on implants, of course, provided that the state of health and the anatomical structure of the patient allows it; which refers to a sufficient breadth and height of the remaining bone.
There are two types of dentures on implants:
1) Prothesis retained on beams and the metal beams follow the alveolar ridge, and are fixed to 3-5 implants. Fasteners are built into the prosthesis and the prosthesis securely fits in the mouth
2) Prothesis retained on balls for this type of prosthesis 2 implants are usually installed. It is suitable for patients who do not have sufficient vertical dimension. Each implant installed in the alveolar ridge has a metal fitting formed like a ball ("male part") which would match the slots built into the prosthesis ("female part").
In both cases, the prosthesis is made of an acrylic base that mimics the look of the gums. Ceramic or acrylic teeth look like natural teeth and are attached to an acrylic base.
Partial prothesis are used when a patient is missing several teeth, and it is made in case if there is no possibility of making a fixed prothesis (bridge) or the patient for economic reasons decides to have a partial prothesis. The prosthesis can be whole made of plastic with buckles, or of metal and plastic with clasps or with precise joint connections.
Partial prothesis with "attachments" is a kind of fixed-mobile prothesis. An "attachment" is a type of connection which is fixed to the prothesis, and it is a corresponding matrix on the base of the prothesis. There are a number of different "attachment" systems, and their selection depends on the design of the prosthesis. Due to the transfer of a part of the load on the teeth, the base of the partial prothesis is smaller than the base of a full prothesis and therefore it is more comfortable to wear, because it fits with a lower surface of the mucosa. It is also more comfortable regarding speech, and because of a better stability it is more comfortable to chew. It contains a metal skeleton covered with pink acryl, looking like mucosa. The metal skeleton strengthens the prosthesis and prevents cracking the fragile base in case of strong chewing.
The beams have a similar function as the "attachments". Between the two crowns, which are cemented to the teeth, there is a metal beam, and in the base of the prothesis there is a cavity which serves as a matrix for the beam. By setting the prosthesis on the base, the beam enters into the matrix and connects the prosthesis to the teeth. Hereby it is stabilized and at the same time it allows the transfer of masticatory forces to the teeth.
Telescopic crowns are double crowns that also serve to transfer forces and stabilize the prosthesis. This type of prothesis is one of the fixed-mobile ones. The outer crown (matrix) is part of the partial prothesis, and the inner (male) is cemented to the tooth. By setting the prosthesis to the base, the outer crown is seated on the inner one, and friction at their contact surfaces keeps them together. Telescopic systems are very good elements to stabilize a prosthesis and the transfer of powers and is considered one of the most precise types of prothesis. It ensures a very good aesthetic. A disadvantage is a complicated production technique that makes the prothesis expensive.